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Charles Foster
Charles Foster

The Expelled [2021]

In the same month in which their Majesties [Ferdinand and Isabella] issued the edict that all Jews should be driven out of the kingdom and its territories, in the same month they gave me the order to undertake with sufficient men my expedition of discovery to the Indies. So begins Christopher Columbus's diary. The expulsion that Columbus refers to was so cataclysmic an event that ever since, the date 1492 has been almost as important in Jewish history as in American history. On July 30 of that year, the entire Jewish community, some 200,000 people, were expelled from Spain.

The Expelled

In the end, only eight Portuguese Jews were actually expelled; tens of thousands of others were forcibly converted to Christianity on pain of death. The chief rabbi, Simon Maimi, was one of those who refused to convert. He was kept buried in earth up to his neck for seven days until he died. In the final analysis, all of these events took place because of the relentless will of one man, Tomas de Torquemada.

To expel is to drive out, and its usual noun is expulsion. Expel is similar to eject, but expel suggests pushing out while eject suggests throwing out. Also, ejecting may only be temporary: the player ejected from a game may be back tomorrow, but the student expelled from school is probably out forever.

On November 23, 1864, the US Army, by order of Brigadier General Speed S. Fry, forcibly expelled 400 African American refugees from Camp Nelson during the midst of a winter storm. 102 people died of illness and exposure as a result of The Expulsion. According to Captain Theron E. Hall, Assistant-Quartermaster, "More than four hundred poor women and children, families of Colored soldiers have been sent from Camp Nelson the past week. Some have died and all are in starving condition. . . The whole community are loud in denouncing the outrage." The refugee encampment was located south of the main industrial center of the military base. Soldiers traveled through the huts and tents, and rounded up women and children onto wagons that were driven beyond army lines. The refugee camp was destroyed to ensure that they did not return. The refugees wandered north along the Lexington-Danville Turnpike (US 27) toward Nicholasville. Many died along the route. Unlike men fit for military service, Black women and children, including family members of United States Colored Troops [USCT] soldiers, were not emancipated upon reaching Camp Nelson. They were granted no protection and their status was uncertain, subject to capture, expulsion from Federal lines, and re-enslavement. It was the seventh recorded expulsion of Black refugees from the camp since the army began recruitment of USCT regiments in June 1864. General Fry's order was quickly rescinded by his superiors and the War Department, but the eight expulsion of Black refugees from Camp Nelson proved the deadliest. The tragic event made headlines in newspapers across the county and reached the hall of Congress. The Expulsion inspired legislation that emancipated family members of Black soldiers, signed by President Abraham Lincoln on March 3, 1865.

After German-Polish talks failed, the German Foreign Ministry handed over the whole affair to the Gestapo, which on 27 October 1938 started forcibly deporting Polish Jews over the Polish border. In some places only the men were deported, since the Nazis expected they would be joined by their wives and children all the same, while in other places women and children were deported as well. Those arrested included old people, some of whom died during deportation. There were also suicides. The arrested Jews were forced, through threats and violence, to illegally cross the border with Poland. In all, approximately 17,000 people were expelled in this way. However, the Polish authorities refused to accept them, and so most of them had to live for many long weeks in no man's land, or the Polish border area. In most cases they were driven into the surroundings of the Polish towns of Zbaszyn and Bytom. In Zbaszyn, according to various sources, between six and ten thousand Jews gathered in the space of a few days. A large refugee camp was created in Zbaszyn, with help from Jewish aid organisations. The personal freedom of the refugees was restricted. It was not until the end of November 1938 that the Polish authorities decided to disband the camp and allow the refugees residency in Poland. With the help of Jewish communities and organisations, many of them managed to arrange travel visas and to leave the country, or to settle in Poland. After talks with the Polish authorities, the Nazis allowed the temporary return of a small group of men so that they could put their affairs in order in Germany. Finally, the Polish authorities also permitted the arrival of the family members of Jews expelled at the end of October 1938.

Among those sent to Zbaszyn was the Grynszpan family, whose son Herschel was living in Paris at the time and decided to draw international attention to the plight of the expelled Polish Jews. He shot German diplomat Ernst vom Rath with a pistol, seriously wounding him. When vom Rath subsequently died, the Nazis used his death as a welcome pretext to unleash the anti-Jewish pogrom known as Kristallnacht.

The case of the Polish Jews expelled from Germany shows that Jewish refugees were having more and more difficulty finding a refuge from persecution. Not only Poland, but other countries were closing their borders in an effort to prevent a flood of Jewish immigrants.

Children gather outside the El Transito synagogue and Sephardic Museum in Toledo, Spain. Founded in 1357, the synagogue was converted into a church following the expulsion of Jews from Spain in 1492. Spain is now preparing to pass a law that would allow descendants of the expelled Jews to receive Spanish citizenship. Gerard Julien/AFP/Getty Images hide caption

Now their descendants may become Spanish again, under a draft law approved by Spain's government. It would grant Spanish citizenship to descendants of Jews expelled in 1492. A recent amendment would let them keep their current citizenship too.

Many families don't know the religion of their ancestors more than 500 years ago. But names can be a clue. Toledano traces his Jewish ancestry back to Toledo. He estimates that some 3 million people are believed to be descendants of Spain's expelled Jews.

Itzhak Levy, seated in his Jerusalem apartment, holds a copy of a book on his family's history. Levy's ancestors were expelled from Spain. But he says he's not interested in the offer of Spanish citizenship because he doesn't feel that Europe today is supportive of Israel. Ellen Krosney for NPR hide caption

Although IL-4 induces expulsion of the gastrointestinal nematode parasite, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, from immunodeficient mice, this parasite is expelled normally by IL-4-deficient mice. This apparent paradox is explained by observations that IL-4 receptor alpha chain (IL-4Ralpha)-deficient mice and Stat6-deficient mice fail to expel N. brasiliensis, and a specific antagonist for IL-13, another activator of Stat6 through IL-4Ralpha, prevents worm expulsion. Thus, N. brasiliensis expulsion requires signaling via IL-4Ralpha and Stat6, and IL-13 may be more important than IL-4 as an inducer of the Stat6 signaling that leads to worm expulsion. Additional observations made in the course of these experiments demonstrate that Stat6 signaling is not required for IL-4 enhancement of IgG1 production and actually inhibits IL-4-induction of mucosal mastocytosis.

The Situation in the American League The situation in the American League merits the deepest attention of the entire movement. The League, reorganized legally in 1922, grew steadily until 1925 under the leadership which has now been expelled because of their adherence to the Opposition (Shachtman, Abern, Carlson, Edwards, Mass, etc.) In that period, free from faction struggle until the latter part of it when it was introduced by the Lovestone group. League units were organized in every part of the country. The third convention found a League with a member[ship] of more than 3,000. The Young Worker had been changed from a monthly magazine to a militant weekly newspaper, issued regularly. The influence, activity and ideological level of the League was on the increase.

The comrades of the expelled Opposition have been active members of the League for many years, engaged in work in many spheres of League activity. The expelled comrades are proletarians who have in many cases played a leading part in the work of building the movement. The first condition for the unification of the League and Party is the immediate reinstatement of all the expelled Communists with full rights of discussion and clarification.

One of the metrics that is relevant to this annual calculation is the Expelled Firm Association Metric.3 This metric is impacted by the number of Registered Persons Associated with Previously Expelled Firms, which is defined to mean any Registered Person In-Scope who was registered for at least one year with a previously expelled firm and whose registration with the previously expelled firm terminated during the Evaluation Period.4 The Evaluation Period, for this purpose, means the prior five years from the Evaluation Date.5

The foundation of coral reef biology is the symbiosis between corals and zooxanthellae (dinoflagellate genus Symbiodinium). Recently, coral bleaching, which often results in mass mortality of corals and the collapse of coral reef ecosystems, has become an important issue around the world as coral reefs decrease in number year after year. To understand the mechanisms underlying coral bleaching, we maintained two species of scleractinian corals (Acroporidae) in aquaria under non-thermal stress (27C) and moderate thermal stress conditions (30C), and we compared the numbers and conditions of the expelled Symbiodinium from these corals. Under non-thermal stress conditions corals actively expel a degraded form of Symbiodinium, which are thought to be digested by their host coral. This response was also observed at 30C. However, while the expulsion rates of Symbiodinium cells remained constant, the proportion of degraded cells significantly increased at 30C. This result indicates that corals more actively digest and expel damaged Symbiodinium under thermal stress conditions, likely as a mechanism for coping with environmental change. However, the increase in digested Symbiodinium expulsion under thermal stress may not fully keep up with accumulation of the damaged cells. There are more photosynthetically damaged Symbiodinium upon prolonged exposure to thermal stress, and corals release them without digestion to prevent their accumulation. This response may be an adaptive strategy to moderate stress to ensure survival, but the accumulation of damaged Symbiodinium, which causes subsequent coral deterioration, may occur when the response cannot cope with the magnitude or duration of environmental stress, and this might be a possible mechanism underlying coral bleaching during prolonged moderate thermal stress. 041b061a72


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